Enlarge a shape by a negative scale factor
First, you should look at our C Grade topic  'Enlarge a shape by any positive scale factor'
Enlarging a shape by a negative scale factor follows exactly the same process as all other enlargements.
Enlargement by a negative scale factor does not mean the shape gets smaller! It only gets smaller if the scale factor is between 0 and 1.
Two special things happen when you enlarge a shape by a negative scale factor though:
 The shape will end up on the opposite side of the centre of enlargement, compared to the original
 The shape will end up upside down.
If a scale factor is zero, then there would be no shape because after multiplying each coordinate by zero, all coordinates would be the origin. Hence, a dilation cannot have a scale factor of 0.
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